An organisation is course of achieving its objectives is influenced by several internet and external factors. The external factors are beyond control. The internal factors can, however, be controlled or suitably amended to facilitate the achievement of the predetermined objectives.
Every manager tries to ensure that all that is thought of is achieved. It requires for a systematic approach involving a careful forecast and coordinated group effort.
The sequence of careful forecast and coordinated group efforts involves combination of several functions to be performed by a manager. These managerial functions vary from one organization to another. There is no unanimity amongst the scholars as to the functions required to be performed by manager. Different scholars of management have described the function of management differently depending upon their research and studies.
1.Forecasting and planning
In above classification of functions, forecasting was considered as an integral activity of planning. Commanding included directing and staffing. Coordinating, an overall function of management was considered as an independent managerial function. Organizing and controlling were treated as usual functions.
Planning is the fundamental function of management. It implies setting the targets or objectives required to be achieved and also deciding in advance the probable courses of action or methods required to achieve these objectives.
Koontz and ODonnel define planning as An intellectual process, conscious determination of course of action, basing of decision on facts, purposes and considered estimates.
It is implies the managerial process of creating the authority responsibility relationship throughout an organization. It involves the function of delegating authority as ell as fixing the responsibilities. As a managerial function the process of organization includes the following activities.
Staffing is concerned with planning and organizing human resources requirements. Staffing includes the activities which aim at selecting, training and placing the persons of required skills and capabilities
Directing is known as the driving force. To quote koontz and oDonnel Directing is the inter-personal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and contribute effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprise objectives.
Controlling means ensuring that the performance of the persons matches the plans decide in planning stage.