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Vacuum sewer – automotive lockout tools – car door unlock

Basic elements Collection chambers and vacuum valve units Vacuum sewer lines Central vacuum station Vacuum technology is based on differential air pressure. Rotary vane vacuum pumps generate an operation pressure of -0.4 to -0.6 bar at the vacuum station, which is also the only element of the vacuum sewerage system that must be supplied with electricity. Interface valves that are installed inside the collection chambers work pneumatically. Any sewage flows by means of gravity into each house collection sump. After a certain fill level inside this sump is reached, the interface valve will open. The impulse to open the valve is usually transferred by a pneumatically (pneumatic pressure created by fill level) controlled controller unit. No electricity is needed to open or close the valve. The according energy is provided by the vacuum itself. While the valve is open, the resulting differential pressure between atmosphere and vacuum becomes the driving force and transports the wastewater towards the vacuum station. Besides these collection chambers, no other manholes, neither for changes in direction, nor for inspection or connection of branch lines, are necessary. High flow rates keep the system free of any blockages or sedimentation. Vacuum sewer systems are considered to be free of ex- and infiltration which allows the usage even in water protection areas. For this reason, vacuum sewer lines may even be laid in the same trench as potable water lines (depending on local guidelines). The system supplier should certify his product to be used in that way. To achieve the condition of an infiltration-free system and therefore allowing to reduce the waste water amounts that need to be treated, water tight (PE material or similar) collection chambers should be used. Valve and collection sump (waste water) preferably should be physically separated (different chambers) in order to protect service personal against direct contact with waste water and to ensure longer life cycles (waste water is considered to be corrosive). In order to ensure reliable transport, the vacuum sewer line is laid in a saw-tooth (length-) profile, which will be referred to more precisely afterwards. The whole vacuum sewers are filled with air at a pressure of -0.4 to -0.6 bar. The most important aspect for a reliable operation is the air-to-liquid ratio. When a system is well designed, the sewers contain only very small amounts of sewage. The air-to-liquid ratio is usually maintained by “intelligent” controller units or valves that adjust their opening times according to the pressure in the system. Considering that the vacuum idea relies on external energy for the transport of fluids, sewers can be laid in flat terrain and up to certain limits may also be counter-sloped. The saw-tooth profile keeps sewer lines shallow, lifts minimise trench depth (approx. 1.0 1.2 m). In this depth, expensive trenching, as it is the case for gravity sewers with the necessity to install continuously falling slopes of at least 0.5 – 1.0%, is avoided. Lifting stations are not required. Once arrived in the vacuum collection tank at the vacuum station, the wastewater is pumped to the discharge point, which could be a gravity sewer or the treatment station directly. As the dwell time of the watewater inside the system is very short and the wastewater is continuously mixed with air, the sewage is kept fresh and any fouling inside the system is avoided (less H2S). Advantages closed, pneumatically controlled system with a central vacuum station. Electrical energy is only needed at this central station no sedimentation due to self-cleansing high velocities spooling and maintenance of the sewer lines is not necessary manholes are not required Usually only a single vacuum pump station is required rather than multiple stations found in gravity and low pressure networks. This frees up land , reduces energy costs and reduces operational costs. investment costs can be reduced up to 50% due to simple trenching at shallow depths, close to surface flexibility of piping, obstacles (as open channels) can be over- or underpassed reduced installation time small diameter sewer pipes of HDPE, PVC materials; savings of material costs aeration of sewage, less development of H2S, with its dangers for workers, inhabitants, as well as corrosion of the pipes may be avoided; sewage is kept fresh no odours along the closed vacuum sewers no infiltration, less hydraulic load at treatment station and discharge sewers absolutely no leakages (vacuum avoids exfiltration) sewers may be laid in the same trench with other mains, also with potable water or storm-water, as well as in water protection areas Lower cost to maintain in the long term due to shallow trenching and easy identification of problems In combination of vacuum toilets it creates concentrated waste streams, which makes it feasible to use different waste water treatment techniques, like anaerobic treatment Limitations vacuum systems are not capable of transporting sewage over very long distances, but can pump long distances from the vacuum station to the next STP or main gravity sewer. vacuum sewerage systems are only capable for the collection of wastewater within a separated system (not for the collection of storm-water) the lines can only reach up to 3-4 km laid in flat area (restrictions of the system due to headlosses (3-4.5 m) (friction and static)) systems should be designed with help of an experienced manufacturer (concepts are usually free of charge) external energy is required at a central point for collecting sewage odours close to the vacuum station can occur, a biofilter may be necessary Integrity of the pipe joints is paramount Application Fields Vacuum sewer systems becomes more and more the preferred system in the case of particular circumstances: Especially difficult situations as ribbon, peripheral settlements on flat terrain with high specific conduit lengths of longer than 4 metres per inhabitant are predestined for the application of vacuum sewerage systems. In the case of sparse population density the influence of the costs for the collection chambers and vacuum stations are less important in comparison to the costs of long and deep sewers on gravity. Missing incline of the ground, unfavourable soil (rocky or swampy grounds) and high groundwater table (with the necessity of dewatering trenches) lead to enormous investment costs in regards to gravity sewerage systems. On the contrary vacuum sewers that are small in diameter can be laid close to the surface in small trenches. Vacuum sewers can pass through water protection areas and areas with sensitive high ground water tables, because there is no danger of spoiling groundwater resources (vacuum sewers have a high leak tightness due to their material; moreover the vacuum itself does not allow exfiltration). Vacuum systems has also been applied to collect toxic wastewater. Vacuum systems are seen as a priority in many environmentally sensitive areas such as the Couran Cove Eco Resort close to the Barrier Reef in Australia. In seasonal settlements (recreation areas, camping sites etc.) with conventional gravity sewer systems, sedimentation problems can easily occur as automatic spooling from the daily waste water does not take place. High flow velocities within vacuum sewers prevent such sedimentation problems. The Formula 1 race tracks in Shanghai and Abu Dhabi are using a vacuum sewer system for that reason. Even in old narrow and historical villages, the use of vacuum sewer systems becomes more and more important due to a fast (traffic, tourism), cost-effective and flexible installation. Good examples and references can be found in France, such as the village of Flavigny, in Oman at the township of Khasab and Al Seeb. Lack of water in many countries and drastic water savings measures have led to difficulties with aging gravity networks with solids blocking in the pipes. Neither the lack of water nor solids affect resp. occur in vacuum sewer systems. That’s why this technology becomes interesting for such kind of applications. As PE or PVC pipes are used, no solids from ageing pipes will enter the system. All other solid are kept out at the collection chambers. vacuum sewer systems don’t have any manholes to dump big solids into the system. Project Examples The county of Sarasota, Florida and the city of Carnation, Washington are developing a county wide collection system and is incorporating vacuum sewers. In Germany, several hundred well-working systems are operating since the 1970. Especially in the Middle East (United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman), vacuum sewer systems become more and more important due to easy and fast installation along with water saving effects and easiness of maintenance. The world’s most famous vacuum sewer project is currently the Palm Island Jumeirah, located at the coast of Dubai City, United Arab Emirates. Approx. 23.000 people will be connected to this vacuum sewer system with only 1 central vacuum station. The vacuum station is considered to be the biggest vacuum station in the world. The biggest installation in Europe (several vacuum stations) can be found in Gerasdorf (near Vienna), Austria, where many benefits of a vacuum sewer system helped to overcome difficult conditions in this mountainous area. Good examples can be found on the Maldives, the post-tsunami WATSAN project UNICEF – UN, where on several islands vacuum sewer systems have been the best option. Several other project, mainly for resorts, have already been realized on the Maldives. Vacuum sewer systems are not only used in the Europe or Middle East but even in low developed third world countries. Several vacuum sewer systems have been already built or are currently under construction in Africa (South Africa, Botswana, Namibia) for townships and rural areas where the benefit of fast construction time, cost saving trenching and high flexibility have come to full effect. Australia has been one of the largest users of vacuum sewer systems due to the low installation and operational costs. The largest system to-date has been at the Tea Gardens development in New South Wales, which will ultimately handle over 4.500 houses. The Water Corporation in Western Australia is considered the largest single owner of vacuum systems in the world with over 30 schemes now under their operational control. The United Kingdom is well served by Vacuum Sewerage Systems, the region most extensively served are the low lying fenlands of the East of England. High water tables (in some cases less than 1metre below the surface) and poor ground conditions have meant that the local Water Company Anglian Water has embraced the use of Vacuum Sewerage, taking advantage of the system’s requirement for small bore sewer pipes laid in shallow trenches, dramatically reducing the requirement for pumping stations as would be required by conventional gravity sewer systems. The largest Vacuum Sewerage scheme in this region serves the villages of Outwell and Upwell, 4 vacuum collection stations serve some 1500 homes in this agglomeration. On initial costings for a conventional gravity sewer to serve the area, previously served by domestic septic settlement tanks the site would have required the installation of 32 pumping stations. Using a vacuum sewer system, this number of pumping stations was reduced to 4 vacuum stations. Other companies in the UK such as Southern water operate vacuum sewer systems, too. Lately, vacuum sewer systems become popular for industrial and commercial projects as well, where only little domestic waste water occurs and where the flexibility of a vacuum sewer system allows easy coordination with usually plenty of other utilities in the ground. Good examples can be found again in the Middle East, such as some small industrial areas in the Emirate of Ras al Khaimah or the newly built Qatalum Aluminium Plant in Qatar, the world’s largest primary aluminium plant. The well known eco-city of Masdar, U.A.E., uses a vacuum sewer system as well to separate grey from black water. Installation and construction The following section covers some basic information regarding the installation of vacuum sewer system. This section is not complete and should only give a basic overview. Based on long term experience, only HDPE pipes should be used for vacuum sewer system pipe works. The recommended pipe classification is SDR11. Preferences should be given to electro fusion joints rather than butt welding. In general, butt welding shall only be allowed for pipe diameters bigger or equal than 150mm as the internal beads from butt welding methods will reduce the diameter especially for 90mm pipes significantly which can cause blockages inside the pipes. It is most important not to use any 90 connection within the pipe work. This refers to any main or branch lines connections as well as to horizontal direction changes. Only wye-fittings and 45 bends may be used. Using 90 connection will lead to blockages within the system and may create water hammers with temporarily pressure drops affecting the equipment. It is furthermore very important to follow the pipe profiles which should be given by the system supplier. A minimum requirement is a constant slope of 0.2% within the so called saw tooth profile. Upwards slopes and deviations from the given pipe profiles will lead to water sags causing temporarily blockages and pressure drops resp. additional head losses. In worst case, this can lead to a failure of the system. Especially the connection line from the collection pit to the next branch or main line needs to maintain a certain slope as otherwise water sags may cut off the valves from the vacuum inside the pipe system causing malfunction of the valves. Special attention has to be given to the civil works related to the pipe work installation. Over-compaction or damages to the pipes by excavators may result in significant problems during operation. Even if the pipe withstands the pressure tests during construction and after backfilling, squeezed pipes or pipe full of concrete or other construction debris will lead to blockages and water sags during operation. Although international guidelines give clear recommendations for gate valves (every 400-500m within main lines and for branch lines longer than 200-250m), all important side branches should be equipped with a gate valves. This will allow much faster pressure tests and leak detection during construction and will allow emergency measures if problems occur. Ruling technical guidelines and norms EN 1091 DWA-A 116-1 (also known as ATV-DVWK-A 116, Part 1) WEF (Water Environment Federation) Alternative Sewer Systems (Second Edition -2008) WSA 07 (Australian Code) AS 4310 – 2004 (Australian Vacuum Interface Valve Standard) External links Airvac, International (U.S.A.) Roevac, International (Germany) Iseki, UK Quavac, Netherlands Flovac, International Vacuum sewerage systems on Wikipedia References ^ PCS: Vacuum Sewer Construction ^ http://www.ci.carnation.wa.us/sewer/factsheet-vacsystem.pdf Categories: Sewerage infrastructure

Antihypertensives Market To 2016

In 2009, the global anti-hypertensive market was estimated to be worth $27.2 billion, representing a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 5.0% between 2002 and 2009. The market is forecast to reach $30 billion by 2016, indicating a CAGR of 1.5% between 2009 and 2016. The primary reason for slight and gradual growth in the market is the patent expiries of major blockbusters, which are expected to decrease the annual cost of therapy after 2007.

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The global anti-hypertensive market is expected to witness a series of patent expiries between 2007 and 2015, which includes most of the top selling blockbuster drugs in the anti-hypertensive market. The major drugs that are set to lose patent protection include Novartiss Diovan (2012), Sanofi Aventiss Avapro (2012), Novartiss Exforge (2012), Takeda/AstraZenecas Blopress/Atacand (2012), Pfizers Revatio (2012), Actelions Tracleer (2015), and United Therapeutics Remodulin (2014). All these drugs together accounted for more than $19.4 billion in revenues in 2009. Mercks Cozaar patent expired in April 2010. The sales of Cozaar for the year 2009 were $3.6 billion. Pfizers Norvasc, which was once the worlds most prescribed drug for hypertension and angina, saw a sales decline of 12% in 2009 due to genericization in 2007. Thus, the series of upcoming patent expiries in the hypertension as well as PAH markets are set to lead to a decline in the market in the near future. However, due to increased usage of fixed dose-combinations and the entry of generics, the market is expected to rise slightly after 2015.

The current anti-hypertensive pipeline does offer some promising novel products, such as SPP635, Actos, LCZ696, QT1571, ACT-293987, PS-433540, Macitentan and Riociguat, indicated for the treatment of hypertension and PAH. However, the revenues generated from these products are not expected to completely make up for the revenue losses due to patent expiries. Thus, the overall global anti-hypertensive market is expected to show flat growth during the forecast period.

GBI Research, a leading business intelligence provider, has released its latest research Antihypertensives Market to 2016 – Generic Erosion Following Patent Expiry of Major ARBs to Impact the Market. The report provides in-depth analysis of the unmet needs, drivers and barriers that affect the global antihypertensive market. The report analyzes the markets for antihypertensive disorders in the US, the top five markets in Europe (the UK, Germany, France, Italy and Spain), and Japan. Treatment usage patterns, sales, prices and volumes are forecast until 2016 for the key geographies as well as the leading therapeutic segments. Furthermore, the report provides competitive benchmarking for the leading companies and analyzes the mergers, acquisitions and licensing agreements that shape the global markets.

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Cult Wines Ltd – best place for fine wine investment

People are always looking for some new investment sector as per their risk appetite. Yeah many times wrong investment can burn all hard work into ash. So, after having a big recession and still Europe economic crisis on the go one always look for safe investment. In last decade one sector has outperformed in an all recession and it is wine investment and fine wine investment.

Before doing any investment there is certain thing which is very important to take care to be safe and secure. One must have to identify some risk factors and all. So first step is to decide on which sector you want to invest then how much amount, and would you like e o one amount or you want systematic investment plan.

Timing of investment is also plays a big role in high return on investment. The most important point is that when you are investing, the time is very important; its totally depending upon current market condition. If you have analysis of market condition you would opt for wine investment. Look at the statistics for wine investment In UK, before a decade, fine wine portfolio was around 10000 and after decade it is almost 50000.

Wine investment will not have adverse effect if any economic crisis happens globally. As we can see in last recession wine investment standout and gave high return. So one can easily say wine investment can give return even in recession. In last 10 years wine investment has given 900% return which is really impressive and attractive.

Cult wines Ltd is the leader where you can get the rarest wines at very competitive rate and if anyone wants to go to the most safe and secure investment than will preference go to the Cult Wines Ltd also Cult Wines Ltd provides solutions for sourcing, investing, storing, selling and consuming Fine Wine of any kind to the investors or for any type of businessman. Cult Wines Ltd provides the fined tuned portfolio mainly designed for high capital growth and accounts and regulated mostly at warehouses. Cult Wines Ltd mainly deals with active foreign and domestic holdings and if any beginner wants to invest in the market than no safe investment except in wines and Cult Wines Ltd where you will get higher returns on investments and also provides the portfolio management services.

So far by this information I hope one can easily take decision for wine investment and Cult wines ltd can help you to build right wine portfolio.

Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid Still On Top Of The Commercial Grade Vehicles

When it comes to being number one, the Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid has clinched that spot for the second consecutive year. Offering their customers the best in design, comfort, and function, this hybrid is well deserved of this prestigious award.

Earning the “Irish Green Commercial of the Year” recognition from a judging panel of over 700 industry experts is no small deal. However, the Fuso Canter made it look like child’s play with the votes of all of the judges across the board. These judges consisted of professionals in the automotive industry such as engineers, driving instructors, and automotive journalists. The judging for this award comprised of categories similar to the award for “International Truck of the Year.” These environmentally friendly trucks are judged on 12 different sets of criteria with seven points maximum to be awarded in each category. The areas that were focused on for this outstanding achievement are power/weight ratio, fuel efficiency, handling, cab equipment, driving and ride comfort, and appointments.

This powerful, yet efficient fleet of vehicles is the leaders in their field of light-weight trucks when it comes to hybrid technology. Erik Rnnefarth, Manager Marketing and Product Fuso Europe, at the “Fleet Transport Energy Futures Forum 2014”, commented, “Fuso, one of the largest manufacturers of commercial vehicles in Asia, is the global leader in hybrid technology for the truck segment and has more than 20 years of experience in this field. He also pointed out that the Fuso Canter Eco Hybrids are currently in service with various trucking and transport companies all over the world. There are over 2000 of these vehicles being used by companies to cut down on fuel costs and helping to preserve the environment at the same time. With this many award winning eco-friendly vehicles on the road, the benefits are universal. As a matter of fact, these engineering wonders have already earned many awards in Europe and Japan for their performance.

With up to 23% less fuel usage than compared diesel truck models, these vehicles are able to pay for themselves within three to four years in fuel economy alone. Housing a four-cylinder turbo diesel engine, this vehicle is no slouch. It has the capability of transporting the same heavy loads that the diesel guzzling counterparts deliver. This light-weight truck has an output of 150 horsepower combined with a 40 KW electric motor. More than enough to power these vehicles while maintaining a load capacity of 4.8 ton. With all of this tonnage availability, the Canter is on top of the list even when compared with 7.5 ton trucks.

Although these trucks are deemed the cream of the crop in eco-friendly and efficient commercial vehicles, that has not stopped the Fuso from continually developing new and better technology. They have improved on the E-Cell with a new emission-free and battery-powered Canter. This example of the first small production of these all-electric commercial trucks was unveiled by Fuso at the IAA Commercial Vehicles show. These completely electric light-weight trucks are silent and emission-free.

The Fuso did not stop at the engineering and power aspects of improving their Canter models. Further enhancements have been done on specific safety features and they have expanded their line of models to include different models. These additions add to the value of the overall appeal of these highly sought after eco-friendly transport vehicles. With the addition of extra comfort and functionality of the driving aspects of these trucks, the Canter is quickly becoming the sought after light-trucks for manufacturers and businesses all over the world.

When it comes to everything that an eco-friendly light transport vehicle has to offer owners, the Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid is covering all of the criteria. Winning the “Irish Green Commercial of the Year” award for the second year in a row is proof that this fleet of light-duty commercial trucks is the future of the light transportation industry.

Main Activities Of Investment Banking

Investment banking and corporate finance) is the traditional investment banks, which also involves helping clients to raise funds in capital markets and advising on mergers and acquisitions (mergers and acquisitions). This can be imposed on investors, the issuance of Security, in coordination with the bidders, or negotiating with the goal of integration. Last term of the Division on Investment banking and corporate finance, advisory group is often called the mergers and acquisitions. Create a book where the information is in the bank’s financial market to the meter and the potential customer, if the pitch is successful, the Bank arrange the deal for customers. Divided into general and the investment banking division (IBD) in the coverage of industry groups and product coverage. Industry coverage groups focus on a particular sector, such as health, industrial, technology, and maintaining relationships with the companies in this industry to achieve in the business for a bank. Groups of product coverage to focus on financial products, such as mergers and acquisitions, corporate finance, project finance and asset finance leasing, structured finance, and restructuring of equity and debts are high quality and work in cooperation with industry groups on the more complex needs, and specialized client.

Sales and Trade: On behalf of the Bank and its clients, the function of a large investment bank in the first place to sell products. Market makers and traders buy and sell financial products to the growing amount of money on each trade. Sales is a sales force in the investment bank, which is important to appeal to institutions and high net worth investors to trade ideas for the proposal (in the warning based on the buyer’s responsibility), and take orders. Contact sales offices and customer orders for the offices the right brand name, which can price and execute trades, or structure new products that fit a specific need. Restructuring activity is relatively recent derivatives also comes in play, with the staff a high degree of technical writing and arithmetic to create complex structured products which typically offer much greater margins of securities and cash infrastructure.
In 2010, and investment banks came under pressure due to the sale of complex derivatives to municipalities in Europe and the United States of America [2] strategic advice. Follows the external and internal clients on the strategies in different markets. Starting from derivatives to specific industries, companies and industries strategic place in a quantitative framework with full consideration of the macroeconomic scene. This strategy is often the way the company will operate in the market, and the direction it will take in terms of their flow, and sales staff to offer suggestions to customers as well as how structurers create new products. Banks also have to take risks through their own trade, conducted by a private group of traders who interact with customers and through the “main risk” risks undertaken by the dealer after you buy or sell the product to the customer and not hedge his total exposure. Banks seek to maximize the profitability of a certain amount of risk on the balance sheet of their own. The need for numerical ability in sales and trading has created jobs for physics, mathematics and engineering doctoral degrees and quantitative analysts.

* Search is the division which reviews companies and writes reports on their prospects, often with “buy” or “sell” ratings. While the research department may or may not generate income (on the basis of policies in different banks), and the resources that are used to assist in marketing and sales force in suggesting ideas to clients and investment banks by giving their customers. Research also works with external customers investment advice (such as institutional investors and high net worth individuals) in the hope that they are represented by these customers and sales marketing ideas of the Commercial Bank Run, and therefore revenue for the company. There is a potential conflict of interest between investment banking and analysis, and analysis was published that could affect the bank’s profits. Even in recent years has become the relationship between investment banking and research is very organized, a Chinese wall between public and private employment.

Disasters In Bridge Design And Construction

A country’s infrastructure is essential to its success, and having a network of transport systems in place is vital not only for the industry, but for safety too. Bridge construction forms a major part of access routes in every country in the world; from simple wooden bridges in the foothills of rural Wales, to the world famous engineering masterpieces such as the Golden Gate Bridge. The structures may be very different but they serve the same purpose, to provide safe and swift access.

In wealthier parts of the world such as Europe and the UK, the need for bridges is often a matter of convenience, for saving time and improving access and traffic flow from one area to another. In more remote parts of the world, bridges can form a vital connection to essential supplies, and without them certain sections of the population would be at risk in the event of a natural disaster or during times of conflict.

For example, during a study of the Turkish infrastructure, it was noticed that a fault line separated the country along what happened to be an economic divide. In the event of an earthquake this would endanger the lives of some of the poorest of the population as there would be no direct route for supplies and aid. This study led to the construction of a bridge that would ensure that such help would be able to reach these areas should such a disaster occur.

Designing and constructing any bridge is a feat of engineering excellence, but building bridges to withstand the rigours of some of the toughest natural environments is a marvel all of its own. Hurricanes, extreme tides, earthquakes and tornadoes are all elements that need to be accounted for when designing a bridge, and do not forget that human error needs to be accounted for too.

Some of the most notorious bridge disasters involve collapse due to impact from boats and trains. In these accidents, the piers or pilings have given way from the force of the collision and caused the rest of the structure to give way. Other bridge failures have been blamed on superstructure failure due to bad workmanship, such as poor welding, or the use of low quality materials. The final way that bridges can fail spectacularly is in the miscalculation of sums by the engineers themselves.

The mathematics involved in bridge construction involves complex equations that have to account for natural variations in the properties of the chosen construction materials and the way these materials will function in the chosen environment. Add this to the effects of a speeding train, hundreds of vehicles or the marching feet of pedestrians, and the numbers in bridge building become very complex indeed. Many bridges that have appeared structurally sound on paper have behaved in a very different manner in real life.

Some of the most spectacular of these bridge failures have been attributed to what is known as a sinusoidal wave which causes harmonic motion. There is well aired footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed after the not so harmonic motion caused total structural failure. Basically, small vibrations caused by movement on the bridge accumulate until what appears to be a solid structure has a fluidity that resembles the movement of a wave in water. In some cases, this movement subsides if the causes of the vibrations cease, but in other cases, once the process is underway, the movement becomes self- perpetuating until collapse occurs.

A similar occurrence happened when the Millennium Bridge was opened to the public in 2000. As pedestrians crossed the river the vibrations of the footsteps caused the bridge to sway slightly, and as it did, those crossing had a tendency to walk in time with the movement which served to feed the harmonic motion. Fortunately the bridge was closed without there being any injuries, and over the course of a couple of years the design was modified slightly to prevent such an event happening again. The conclusion is that there will always be a fine balance between engineering genius and pushing the limits of physics itself whilst engineers strive to provide easy or essential access to remote areas and popular destinations alike in the name of technological advancement.