Steps involved in marginal costing

The technique of marginal costing involves the following steps:

a)Differentiation between the fixed costs and variable costs; b)Ascertainment of marginal costs and c)Ascertaining the effect on profit due to changes in volume or type of output; i.e. the determination of cost-volume-profit relationship.

The steps involved in marginal costing are explained as below: a)Difference between fixed costs and variable costs: Marginal costing technique involves the segregation of all costs into fixed costs and variable costs. The costs may be divided into fixed costs, variable costs and semi fixed or semi variable costs. Fixed cost may be defined as a cost which tends to remain unaffected in aggregate by changes in the volume of output. Fixed costs are generally referred to as period costs as they are incurred on the basis of time and do not vary directly with volume or rate of output such as rent, rates, insurance premium etc.

The variable cost may be defined as a cost which tends to change in aggregate in direct proportion to changes in output. The variable costs mainly depend on output and are sometimes referred to as direct costs. The examples of variables costs are direct material cost, direct wages, direct expenses etc. Semi variable cost or semi fixed cost is a cost which is partly fixed and partly variable. It tends to change in aggregate with changes in volume of output but not directly in proportion to such changes. The examples of semi variable costs are repairs and maintenance, cost of supervision etc.

b)Ascertainment of marginal cost: Under the marginal costing technique only variable costs are applied to products. The cost of production is the marginal cost of production and the cost of sales is the marginal cost of sales. The marginal cost refers to the aggregate of prime cost and all variable overheads. The prime cost is the aggregate of direct material cost, direct wages and direct or chargeable expenses. All variable overheads means variable overheads plus the variable portion of semi variable overheads. Semi variable overheads are partly fixed and partly variable and require segregation into fixed and variable elements.

The variable portion is added to fixed overheads thus forming part of marginal cost whereas the fixed portion is added to fixed overheads and the total fixed overheads are treated as separate costs. These separate costs are related to time and hence are known as period costs. The main problem to a cost accountant is to segregate the semi variable overhead into fixed and variable elements. The segregation or separation of semi variable overhead into fixed and variable elements can be done by adopting various methods such as comparison method. The high and low points method, equation method, averages method, graphical method or least square method. offers Accounting Homework Help

Investment Diversification With Commodity Mutual Funds

As the old saying goes, dont put all your eggs in one basket. The same is true with your money. Dont put all your investment money in one stock, or even the same sector of stocks. Investment diversification is an easy concept to understand. Whats not easy is deciding where to spread your money. And for various reasons most people dont consider commodity mutual funds.

Most people tend to put all their investment or retirement money in the stock market. They either invest in the company they work for, or buy stocks of companies that they like, such as Ford, GM, Wal-Mart, or any company that is popular. Or they are using a brokerage house for advice and pick and choose from the brokers suggestions. If they have a large sum of money in investments, they probably have a financial counselor. This adviser should have some of their money in the bond market, which is a good, sound investment diversification strategy.

The stock market is easy to understand and most people are comfortable with checking their stocks performance online. The bond market is a little tougher to follow day to day, and most people just buy the bond and wait for their broker or adviser to recommend a change.

The commodity and commodity mutual fund market is a little tougher to follow and to understand. The prices of gold and oil are easy to follow because they are a couple of the most popular commodities. The prices of corn, cotton or pig bellies are not so popular. Unless you are a producer or buyer of these commodities you probably dont have a clue what their price is.

But commodity mutual funds are a great tool to add investment diversification to any portfolio. They offer investment protection from inflation, a weak dollar and swings in the stock market.

Over the last few years, there has been a large increase of investing in commodity mutual funds do to the bad performance of the stock market. With the large amount of choices in the stock and mutual fund market, stock brokers usually do not research or recommend commodity mutual funds. They probably have hard enough time pushing their stock pick of the day, let alone trying to sell commodity products.

For that reason, you need to do your own research into commodities and commodity mutual funds. They can add value to your retirement fund.

The Importance Of Coupons And Vouchers

An integral component of building Raving Fans is rewarding your customers. You sell the best gizmos and provide fabulous customer service (both vital to building good relationships with your customers) but what turns a loyal customer into a Raving Fan.

Coupons or vouchers have an important role to play in saying thank you and making customers feel special. You can have a lot of fun and create a lot of loyalty. Lets look at when to use vouchers. A list of just some of the applications with examples follow. When you get the idea make sure you look at the last item what to remember before you set up your own vouchers.
Giving away things for FREE or discounted requires a bit of thought.

When to use vouchers: Saying Thank you

Vouchers and coupons are a great way to say Thank you. Use them when your customers complete a survey for you or when they first become a customer. Can you imagine going into a florist, purchasing flowers for you wife, completing the registration formthen when you open the computer the next day at workhey presto a thank you email with a voucher towards you next purchase, to welcome you to the we dont forget important dates Florist!. Nice touch!

When to use Vouchers: To move slow stock

Say you are a fashion shop. the Summer Sales are upon you so you generate a coupon to send to your loyal customer database and offer them an advanced opportunity to purchase before the general public. Summer sale starts on 1 June, come in any time the week prior, present your coupon and purchase at sale prices offer only available to customers of the Chic Fashion House. They feel special. They have a choice of all stock before general release and chances are, they will visit and purchase.

When to use Vouchers: Announce and move new stock

A florist has just ordered a pallet of designer pots. A new line for the business. She generates a voucher offering a special deal to her loyal customers. she offers a better price than the one she intends to offer to the general public. Special delivery at a special price due to go on sale on 1 September at $10 per pot, we are offering our Flower Family a sneak opportunity to purchase at just $8.50 per pot when you purchase two. In a single email you have raised awareness among your loyal customers of a new line you are carrying and again you are making them feel special. From their response, youll also get an idea of how popular its going to be!

When to use Vouchers: Cross-sell other products and services.

How many product lines do you carry? A few? Do your regular customers use all your services or just one or two? Do the ones that use just one of two even know about your other services or products? What would happen to your business if say 20% of your existing customers, purchased one other product or service from you? Its a pot of gold!!! And you have it. Just a quick note to thank you for your purchase and to include a voucher for our Pretty Pots at least thats what we think they are! Use you voucher to purchase one of our Pretty Pots and see for yourself. Look forward to seeing you next time. In a single email you have raised awareness among your loyal customers of other products or services they may not be aware of, and you have encouraged them to purchase.

When to use Vouchers: As an inducement to place another order / Up-selling

Coupons can form part of an ongoing promotion to encourage repeat orders and prevent customers straying. Often customers just wander off. You have done nothing wrong they just have a competitors name to hand at the time they want to order and hey presto, theyre gone! A printer completes a job for a new client. The clients information is now on the database. A thank you and Coupon is emailed out immediately offering a discount or an up-sell on a second order. I.e. the customer ordered 10,000 brochures. As a thank you he is offered a voucher for 500 business cards FREE with his next order. This printer will qualify the size of the next order on the voucher, and the expiry date. He can gang up multiple businesses, to make his business card offer really economic to print.

When to use Vouchers: Filling in a slow time in the season

Lots of companies dread particularly slow times of the year. They know they are coming but have difficulty cranking up work. Now you have a database, you can offer any number of inducements to help fill in this slow time. Imagine you are a car repair company. Every year you have a particularly slow period in January. Plan ahead. This year you are going to offer a free wheel alignment with every service if booked before Christmas for a January job. Tourism operators are very seasonal. In February everyone goes home and your resort is empty. Do a deal with the local cinema and send out a coupon to your more local market that would like a special night out. Offer a Fab February Flick deal. Book a room and get a free cinema tickets to whatever is on that month. Lots of ideas it just needs pre-planning and you should never be sitting dreading that slow month again!

What to remember?

When considering sending out a voucher, make sure you consider: What value – Giving away something free or discounted requires thinking through. Is it going to cheapen my product? Is the amount I am sacrificing worth the additional revenue? Can I pick up the cost I am sacrificing by increasing my charges anywhere? Once you have satisfied these questions, move on. Put a cutoff date for the offer.

You dont want them valid for too long because customers tend to procrastinate then end up never using the coupons or vouchers. Similarly you dont want them brining a voucher into your business in 2 years and expect you to honor it.

There always has to be conditions applied to your coupons and vouchers. For example, you may want to make them non-transferable or applicable to non-sale items. If its for a service then you might want to exclude times that you know you will be busy.

Construction Building And Residential Architects Are The Best

If you are planning to build a new home, Construction Building is the best builder that you can get. To be sure that every step of the construction is being deeply analyzed, Residential Architects should be there during the planning. These just dont sound to be a great deal but also is a secured choice for the construction of your home. Building a home is an investment not only as a shelter. In time you might decide to sell it, the construction should be well done to get a good price from buyers. Construction Building makes remarkable homes with their engineers and architects.

Planning is the most essential part of the whole home building. The best manpower that made up Construction Building gathers around and makes severe brainstorming for the construction. Residential Architects coordinate with the design considering some factors that can cause a good and bad impact in the process. You have to be involved in this as well. This is about building your home so it is important that you know how your builders deal with your home building. Given that you have told them your budget, they will see to it that everything fits best and they are efficient enough to let all set according to what you desire. Construction Building manages your budget, materials and scheduling. In the plan, there is already an anticipated delay and what they would do when that happens. The environmental impact is also considered when they do the planning. All you need to do is to be aware of all this even if they will update you from time to time. It’s not like you don’t trust them enough but involvement is a positive thing especially with your investment. It makes a good difference in whatever you would do.

Construction Building covers not only new homes but also renovation. With the technology today, Residential Architects utilize the technique that is suited for your desired design. It should also be conforming to local authorities assigned of the regulations for building construction. You should check if they follow the codes of practice that is required for them by law. Make sure that they only not impress you in their words but with the way they do their job. Construction Building, on the other hand, sees to it that they will exceed your expectations. At times when what you want may complicate with some factors in the construction plan, they will show you the pros and cons and make things better for you. No matter how complicated, they will surely make you proud of your home.

For a creative design and sustainable home that you want, Construction Building will make it for you. They will make a comfortable home that gives us warmth and brings our family closer. Since we like the feel of a good space and that adapts to what we need, they will surely bring convenience to us. Construction Building values your sense of place and wants to be a part of such a good benefit for you and everyone whom they have touched the lives.

History Of The Industrial Multimeter

Multitester devices have long been used by technicians to make their job simpler. They help maintain the expensive industrial equipments, as they can make accurate electronic measurements for ohms, amperes and volts.
They are available in the digital and analog variations. However, the digital multi meter is more commonly used, as its data can be easily stored and monitored with the help of computer.
These days, you can choose between these devices that are handheld and portable or the wired, bigger ones that are packed with features. However, electronic measuring devices were not always easy-to-use and compact. The first equipments that was used to measure volts, ohms, etc. dates back to the 1800s.
In 1820, the galvanometer was the first device that was used to measure voltage and resistance. It applied the concept of the Wheatstone bridge and basic resistance of electricity. However, it had too many parts, and hence, could not be used on the field; plus, it was very slow. Soon the Weston meter replaced it. Its specialty was that, it used a fine metal spring and built-in field magnets to give measurement proportions. Sometime later, this technology was used in combination with the former one, making the measurements faster and simpler. With a series of shunt resistors added, it could calculate multiple ranges of currents with one movement.
However, automotive multimeterwas not invented until the 1900s. Donald Macadie, the British Post Office engineer, invented an instrument that could easily measure amperes, ohms, and volts all together. It was made from voltage and precision resistors, along with moving coil meters. These were known as the avometers, and were widely used in all facilities.
The vacuum tube voltmeters, also known as the valve voltmeters, were next in line of invention. Industries everywhere accepted these, as they were to be used with circuits that had high impendence. However, it specifically worked with 1 megohm circuit impendence, and hence, sometimes had problems with the lower ones. With minor changes in the voltmeter, the field effect transistor was introduced, which was followed by the analog transistor. They came enabled with varied features like capacitance, frequency, duty cycles etc. and became a must-have tool for every technician.
Lately, you will find multimeters that are enhanced with so many more functions and features. Some, like the HVAC multimeter, even come with specialized applications like the thermocouple probe, computer connectivity, inductance, etc. Hence, your everyday industrial device for measuring electrical current has come a long way from a galvanometer to the digital handheld multimeter.

Paul Chehade – Save A Lot Of Money With This Green Energy Advice

Paul Chehade – Save A Lot Of Money With This Green Energy Advice

There is such an overwhelming amount of information regarding green energy online so locating reliable information is quite challenging. The following article is going to give you simple advice to bring green energy into your home.

Making small adjustments to the way you use energy every day can ultimately reduce your consumption. Unplug appliances when you’re not using them. Try turning off the TV and lights when they’re not in use. This is an easy way to save cash as well.

The government has made grants for investing in renewable energy available to the public. Talk to your local government and figure out what programs are in the area. Who knows, you may qualify for low or no-cost wind or solar installation. Even if you don’t qualify for a grant, you can still use these items as a tax deduction.

During the summer, you should try drying your clothes out in the sun instead of using a dryer. The sun will make your clothing smell great. They’ll smell so much better than if you shoved them into a dryer! As well, you save quite a bit on monthly utility costs.

Try to turn off things you are not using. When you leave an area take the time to turn off lights, televisions, stereos, computers, and other electrical items you are not going to be using. A power strip offers a handy way to shut down multiple devices at once, and it prevents passive electrical use due to standby modes.

If you clean your dishes using a dishwasher, don’t run it until it’s completely full. Your dishwasher consumes the same energy and water, even if it is half full. When running the dishwasher, turn on the setting for energy conservation.

When planning a home solar system, calculate the potential energy generation of the system using hours of sunshine in the winter. This prevents unpleasant surprises in the winter, and it saves money during the summer. Also, if you make use of the net usage plan from your electric company, you will get returns from your utility company for generating energy during summer.

Take the time to properly maintain your refrigerator. Since refrigerators tend to eat up a great amount of power, it is crucial you keep it in perfect working order. Be sure that you’re regularly cleaning the dust that builds up near the heating coils. Don’t forget to be certain to keep the seal surrounding the door tight and clean.

Learn about the differences between passive and active solar power. Passive solar power doesn’t require the costly power-storage cells that active power does. Active solar power requires a lot of involvement in the form of installation, mechanics, and power cells. Passive energy is using the sun’s thermal energy to heat your house.

Pay attention to any federal or local rebates offered for making alternative-energy updates to your home. In some cases, the local utility company will offer rebates for the cost of the upgrades. You may also get state and federal tax deductions for making your home more energy efficient. These credits and rebates will ultimately cut your costs of bringing green energy technology to your house.

Make use of a solar oven for baking needs. You can make one using supplies you may already have on-hand like old window panes, boxes, and pieces of aluminum foil. The internal temperature of these easy-to-build ovens can top 300 degrees, and they do not require any energy besides the sun’s rays.

Get started with some great tips in this article today! All these tips make using green energy technologies simple and affordable for the average home or business owner. Your family and your environment will thank you for it!

Paul Chehade

AAA Construction & Development

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Types Of Construction Environmental Impact

Assessing the Construction Environmental Impacts is one of the most important steps in reviewing an environmental plan for new construction. An environment impact assessment (EIA) needs to be administered to determine the possible positive or negative impacts that a proposed project may have on the environment in regards to natural, social and economic aspects.

A friend of mine lives in a small town in the United States. We typically chat by email or skype. Three years ago, Tisa was excited about a new Walmart coming to town. The nearest Walmart is a half hour away. A super Walmart is about an hour away in the other direction. In her place, other option includes a great size retail unit and some small kiosk. What comes on Tisa’s thinking is that there is no need to ask about either the town needs a Walmart or not. If you figure out her facade lawn area, you’ll see various signage denoting “Say yes to Walmart.”

During these past few years, we’ve been discussing the Construction Environmental Impacts that Walmart might have on her small town. In regards to natural, social and economic, these are the concerns that have been brought up thus far.

Natural Impacts

In regards to natural Construction Environmental Impacts, there have been several heated debates. The targeted space for the store is an old airport strip. However, it’s not quite enough space. Walmart would like to purchase part of a nearby golf course. If this were to occur, the Country Club owner would need to expand the course in a different direction. This would mean altering the river that flows through the land that might be used for the golf course. Several studies are currently being done to assess whether or not this would harm the river flow, as well as the animals and plants in the river.

A usual Construction Environmental Impacts is a collection of Canadian Geese! The home is connected to the old airport strip where the geese occur. People who enjoy walking on the strip for exercise are tired of walking over goose poop and would just assume see the geese driven away.

Social Impacts

The social Construction Environmental Impacts mainly center on the fear of drawing “city” people to the small town for shopping. Heated discussions have been held at town meetings regarding whether or not it will be safe to walk at night time or to leave cars unlock. It also means that a local coffee shop will be torn down to make room for the new parking lot. Customers who have been pleasure from standing by at the shop for years are already grief the prospect of leaving their place where they spend most of their time.

Economic Impacts

Regarding economic Construction Environment Impacts, teens and young adults are all for Walmart. They are in hopes of obtaining a job and receiving health insurance. Older folks are afraid that Walmart will force the little shops to close. They don’t have any hope of the shops being able to compete with a large retail store. Because Walmart has started the beginning steps of a building project, it’s caused other chain stores and restaurants to be interested in the area. There are 2 mid-size chain stores already available to visit. Yet once again, some people are fearful of turning into a small city.

Whether it’s small town USA where TIsa lives, or right here in the UK, any time there is a new building project there is a mix of reactions. Evaluating the Construction Environment Impacts allows people to examine the advantages and disadvantaged when trying to manage the project.

Organized Retail Industry In India – Swot Analysis


Retail Industry in India, contributing over 10 per cent to the country’s GDP and accounting for around 8 per cent of the employment, is the largest among all the industries. Over the years, it has come forth as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries.

More than 95 per cent of the Indian retail sector falls in the unorganized sector category. Organized retail is expected to grow from 5-6 per cent to 14-18 per cent of the total retail market by 2015.

Organized retail sector’s penetration level is 85 per cent in US, 80 per cent in France, 66 per cent in Japan, 20 per cent in China and, merely 5-6 per cent in India. This confirms that India is at an early stage of evolution in the organized retail space and has a huge growth potential.


Industry at a glance Contains a study of the major internal and external factors affecting the industry in the form of a SWOT framework


Gain insight into the industry in terms of the opportunities and threats that will augment and restrict its growth Get knowledge about the forte of the industry which will help it to ride in the lead OVERVIEW SWOT ANALYSIS 1.1Strength 1.1.1Increasing middle class 1.1.2 Technology 1.1.3 Low cost of operations 1.2 Weakness 1.2.1 Low conversion level 1.2.2 Shortage of skilled manpower 1.2.3 Lack of Industry Status 1.2.4 Supply chain 1.2.5 Policy induced barriers 1.3 Opportunities 1.3.1 Rural Retail 1.3.2 Tier II and Tier III cities 1.3.3 Specialty Retail 1.3.4 Disposable Income 1.4 Threats 1.4.1 Unorganized Retail 1.4.2 Complex taxation system 1.4.3 Macro economic factors 1.4.5 Real Estate Issues 1.4.6 Competition


Figure 1 Middle class households (mn, 2012- 2026E) Figure 2 Labor cost per person ($ p.a, Asian countries) Figure 3 City wise retail penetration (%, 2006-2011) Figure 4 Per capita income (INR, 2006-2015E) Figure 5 Lease rentals (% of sales, 2005-2010) For more information kindly visit : Organized Retail Industry In India – Swot Analysis


Bharat Book Bureau Tel: +91 22 27810772 / 27810773 Fax: + 91 22 27812290 Email: Website: Follow us on twitter:!/Sandhya3B Our Blogs:!/bharatbook

Nissan Pathfinder Is The Most Practical SUV

Nissan Pathfinder Is The Most Practical SUV

Nissan Pathfinder is a rugged and strong built yet refined off roader. Nissan hasnt ignored the practicality and that is shown with a large cabin. The pathfinder is a hardworking vehicle which doesnt feel comfortable when on road. The ride is bouncy and the engine is growling , unlike other SUVs of the same class, the Pathfinder is nowhere near luxurious. However it serves the purpose very well of being a simple, reliable and powerful workhorse and costs about 4,000 less than the major rival Land Rover Discovery. The Nissan Pathfinder has simple but meaner boxy looks which doesnt mean it is an ugly car.

The cabin is inspired y the Navara, and is enormous and practically designed. It boast full seven seats and a split opening tail gate. There are many stowage spaces to hold your bits and bobs. The materials used are rugged and of high quality. The Pathfinder is powered by a 2.5 litre four cylinder engine with five speed manual or six speed automatic gearbox. It returns 187 bhp and does 0-62mph in 10.7secs and 11secs with automatic and manual gearbox respectively. The manual gear box requires patience when changing the gears. The ride of the Pathfinder is its biggest negative. It is unsettled on bumpy roads and steering feels wobbly therefore making the handling very difficult and the ride uncomfortable. Having said that, the Pathfinder is best at what it is designed to do, the rough stuff, thanks to a full set of low range gears and a lockable differential.

The Nissan Pathfinder managed to achieve only four star Euro NCAP crash test rating, which might leave a bad impression on some as most of the cars get the maximum five star rating these days. But it is not easy for a 4×4 to get full five stars. The standard safety features include six airbags, ABS brakes, electric stability control and traction control. Nissan Pathfinder has a strong build which is bound to last longer. The Nissan Pathfinder is as practical as any van, all the versions are equipped with seven seats. The boot has 190 litres of space which can be increased to 515 litres by folding the last set bench of seats.

However fold all the seats and you have an enormous space for 2,091 litres of luggage. The rear screen goes down as well allowing to fill the load. The Pathfinder is a bulky and heavy weight car and therefore thirsty on the fuel. With manual gear box it does 33.2mpg with 224g/km of carbon emissions and the automatic is even less at 31.4mpg with 238g/km of CO2. As the carbon emissions are higher the road tax costs are also sky high. The fuel tank has eighty litres of capacity and costs around 130 to fill. Keeping all this in mind. The initial costs might be less but the Pathfinder is expensive to run.

Houston Area Residential Construction Expertise Offered By MW Rogers

Houston Residential Construction Services offered by MW Rogers includes roofing, siding, painting, guttering and insulation, ventilation and radiant barrier. Constructing a residential house really is a very big decision. This may be the home you might be living in your entire life and resting after a hard day’s work, accordingly a lot of deliberation must be put into it. The home improvement firm that you choose counts a great deal because that dictates whether youll obtain a really well built residence that you love or one which is simply poorly built. MW Rogers knows this concern and always constructs charming residential houses using only high-quality material. We really are extensively acknowledged in the Houston area for the very best work out there.

When selecting a Houston residential construction company which you need to construct your residence you have to bear in mind matters such as the length of time which theyve been operating. That could show you if theyve the necessary knowledge or not. MW Rogers has been operating for 16 years and we’re very experienced. We also have especially educated sales professionals who are skilled and always available for you.

An additional thing one ought to take into account when picking a Houston area residential construction firm is the level of quality of materials they will use. Some firms use shoddy materials which won’t be long-lasting and then bill less costly prices. Dont be fooled by those reduced fees as low-cost truly is more expensive. You should not ever concede on quality on account of price. At MW Rogers we will give you top notch materials and workmanship for your cash. We will only use high quality material which is long lasting and our customer is our chief priority. We provide only state-of-the-art tools to ensure you do get the best services.

The Houston residential construction company should explain anything you need to have knowledge of regarding the services they’re going to be doing for you in detail and make it possible for you to make changes if perhaps you do not like some thing. Our highly experienced staff is consistantly present to inform you and help you choose the best suited product for the house. Our offices are continually open furthermore you can visit us at any time you wish. When it gets down to Houston roofing, our staff work with materials which will be long lasting and very strong. The materials we use have a five year guarantee. After working on your roof, our staff will always clean up prior to leaving.

There are actually a lot of residential construction companies in Houston area but none of them does home exterior as professionally as we do. At MW Rogers, we ensure that the home gets painted with the very best paint that is not going to wear out over time. And, we even do guttering and siding. If you permit us to do exterior work your home will surely be the envy of all of your neighbors.

In order to conserve energy, why not let us do insulating for your home? The tools we use is efficient and we’ll finish the job expediently. And then when your residence’s insulation is properly done the home will always be at room temperature.

In the event that you endure any loss stemming from natural disasters we can be available to mend the roofing accurately and help you whenever it relates to filing claims for the insurance by appropriately examining the roof. We will always have your best interests at heart. We utilize a soft-ware program that has been much-admired by insurance firms and is also accredited.

Houston Residential Construction Services presented by MW Rogers are beyond comparison. In our view the owner of a home truly is our priority and we always attempt to present you the very best services.